mardi 16 août 2011

Nutrition: before training / avant l'entraînement

You always wonder what to eat before you train? You often eat a full meal and feel that you can't give it your best? Know that you can eat a full meal 3 to 4h prior a training session.

If you only have 2 to 3 hours to digest, you should take some food rich in glucids (between 2 to 6) and ½ to 1 portion of proteins. However, you should stay away from fat, or lipids. For example, you could eat a small plate of spaghetti without too much sauce, with a small whole wheat bread (no butter),a juice (made from fruits or vegetables) and a small salad.

If you are going to train in an hour or 30 minutes, you can eat from 1 to 3 food such as fruits, a muffin (not from Tim Horton's), carrots, a half bagel with jam, etc.

In short, the closer you get to your training the less your body can digest. Therefore, the less you eat the better and you have to favor food that is rich in glucids. The more complex the glucid, like starch for example, the longer you are going to last, the more simple the carbohydrates, like raffined sugar, the more you are going to feel the energy instantly.

Mmm sugar J

Here is a user friendly way to look at it:

Time before exercice
Type of food
kCal
% of meal in carbohydrates
3 to 4h
Normal meal, not fried, w/o fat sauces 
500-800
60-70
2 to 3h
1 food rich in proteins & 3 to 6 foods rich in carbohydrates
300-500
70-75
2h
½ food rich in proteins & 2 to 4 foods rich in carbohydrates
200-300
75-80
1h
2 to 3 foods rich in carbohydrates
100-200
85-100
30 min
1 to 2 foods rich in carbohydrates
50-100
85-100
_______________________________________________________________________

Vous vous demandez souvent quoi manger avant de venir faire votre entraînement?  Souvent vous prenez un repas complet mais vous trouvez que vous ne donnez pas votre maximum? Sachez que vous ne pouvez prendre un repas complet que si vous avez 3 ou 4h avant votre entrainement!

Si vous avez entre un peu moins que 2h et 3h, vous devez prendre beaucoup d’aliments riches en glucides (entre 2 et 6) et vous pouvez prendre entre ½ et 1 aliment riche en protéines.  Par contre, il faut éviter le gras. Par exemple, vous pouvez manger une petite portion de spaghetti sans trop de sauce, avec un petit pain à grain entiers, sans beurre, un jus de fruit et une petite salade.

Si vous avez entre 1h et 30 minutes, vous devez laisser tomber les protéines et vous concentrer seulement sur les glucides. Vous pouvez manger entre 1 et 3 aliments, tels que des fruits, 1 muffin (pas ceux de chez Tim), des carottes, ½ bagel avec un peu de confiture, etc.

En bref, plus vous vous approcher de l’heure de l’entraînement, moins vous devez manger pour rester optimal et plus vous devez laisser tomber les autres aliments pour vous concentrer sur les aliments riches en glucides.

Mmm des bons glucides J

Temps avant l’activité
Type de repas
Nombre de kCal
% du repas en glucides
3 à4h
Repas normal, sans friture ni sauces grasses
500-800
60-70
2 à 3h
1 aliment riche en protéines & 3 à 6 aliments riches en glucides
300-500
70-75
2h
½ aliment riche en protéines & 2 à 4 aliments riches en glucides
200-300
75-80
1h
2 à 3 aliments riches en glucides
100-200
85-100
30 min
1 à 2 aliments riches en glucides
50-100
85-100


Tiré de "Nutrition, sport et performance". Ledoux M, Lacombe N et St-Martin G; Géo Plein Air 2006.


Source: "Nutrition, sport et performance". Ledoux M, Lacombe N et St-Martin G; Géo Plein Air 2006.

jeudi 11 août 2011

In need of a little iron? Besoin d'un peu de fer?

Evrybody need a little bit of iron everyday. Actually, it is a very important element in our body; without it, our muscles cannot function. Since the hearth is a muscle, well, you get what i'm saying.

Why iron?
It's ironic that we both need to push and eat iron to develop muscles isn't it? But most of all, this element is essentiel to link the oxygen to our red cells. If our bloodstream was a highway and the O2 workers, then iron (Fe) would be the bus or the metro. (It is a bit more complicated than that, if you are interested with the details, just tweet me).
It is also implicated in the process where the body produces energy, or ATP. When we eat, we get macronutrients such as glucids, lipids and proteins. To be able to use such nutrients, we have to transform it into energy, such as ATP, in order to move, breathe and think. It is put in a simple form but, there, you have it.
Fe is also important for other processes, but i will not go into those today.

Too much or too little?
When you have a normal lifestyle and a normal eating habit, then it is very plausible that you have exactly the right amount of iron in your diet. No need to take supplements. However, women in general and pregnant women specifically are more at risk than other people. Also, if you decide to become vegetarian, i suggest you get a little bit of information about how to have a balanced diet, otherwise you might get too little iron as well.
However, recent (but criticised) studies suggest that too much iron might be the cause for certain illenesses, such as cardiovascular problems. Therefore, pharmacists are cautious about suggesting Fe supplements, and unless it is prescribed by a doctor, it is not necessary.

Where to get iron?
Iron is present in many type of food, but it is not always easy to absorb. There is two different type or iron: heme and non-heme. The body can absorb the heme type better thant its counterpart (25% versus 5%). Meat in general contains both type of iron. Dry fruits, molasse, whole grains, beans, green vegetables, and other are a source of non-heme iron. The best heme source is canned clams and tofu for non-heme iron.
But, can we boost it absorbtion rate you ask? But of course. You need to take in some vitamin C and it should do the trick. You can also mix the two types of iron, they like being together, or add some proteins. Be careful though, some things (such as coffee, tea, spinach, cocoa, peanut butter, soya and red wine) can lower your absorbtion, since they contain either phenols, phytates or vegetal proteins.

Conclusion?
Iron is necessary, vital, especially if you are an athlete. Have a balanced diet and you will be fine.
Fun fact: if you are a athlete, while you train you increase your level of plasma, thus reducing the proportion of red cells in the blood. It is the athlete's anemia. But do not worry, it will not affect your performances!

Source: http://www.passeportsante.net/fr/Solutions/PlantesSupplements/Fiche.aspx?doc=fer_ps